Денис Кешкентий / 4 апреля 2023, 14:52

The private or general responsibility of Russian citizens in the European Union in the event of military  aggression of the state on the example of the war between Russia and Ukraine in 2014-2023

The war conflict between Russia and Ukraine that started in 2014 and continues to this day has raised

important questions about the responsibility of Russian citizens who live in the European Union (EU). This

article will explore the concepts of private and general responsibility of Russian citizens in the EU in the 

event of military aggression by their state, using the example of the ongoing war between Russia and 

Ukraine. I will also discuss the application of sanctions by the EU to Russian citizens and their businesses,

and the role of the United Nations in these measures.

The war conflict between Russia and Ukraine started in 2014 when at the end of 2013 Ukraine was seeking

closer ties with the European Union. The Ukrainian government's decision to sign an association

agreement with the EU was met with resistance from Russia, which considered Ukraine to be in its sphere

of influence. In response, Russia annexed Crimea and supported separatists in eastern Ukraine, leading to 

a war that has caused thousands of deaths and displaced millions of people. Later, on November 17, 2022,

the District Court of The Hague established the presence and control over part of the territory of Donetsk

and Luhansk Ukraine’s regions by the official and military authorities of Russia in the case of the downing

of the MH17 self-flying satellite. The District Court of The Hague also sentenced three out of four Russian

citizens to life imprisonment: Igor Girkin, Sergei Dubinsky and Leonid Kharchenko. One defendant, Oleg

Pulatov, was acquitted. That is the personal responsibility of individual citizens who have Russian

citizenship, stand or were in the Russian civil service has been established. As well as the role of Russia

itself in its involvement in this tragedy. The court stated that the listed 4 accused are not all persons

involved in the execution of the civil self-flying MH17 with 283 passengers and 15 crew members.

Under EU law, foreign persons can be held liable for damages caused by their actions or omissions. This

means that if a Russian citizen living in the EU is found to have committed a crime or violated human

rights, they can be held responsible and face legal consequences. This concept of private liability applies

to all foreign persons, regardless of their nationality.

Russian citizens who live in the EU or have dual citizenship of the EU and Russia, or have Russian

citizenship and are legally in the EU, are subject to the laws of the EU. This means that if their actions or 

omissions violate EU law, they can face legal consequences. In the case of the conflict between Russia and 

Ukraine, if a Russian citizen living in the EU is found to have supported or facilitated the actions of the 

Russian government or Russian army, they can be held responsible and face legal consequences.

The Russian milliarder Arkady Volozh's, the owner of the YANDEX group companies, associated with the 

FSB of Russia, was proclaimed on the EU sanctions list on June 6, 2022. Since 2019, he has been the owner

of a valuable house in the centre of Amsterdam at Vossiusstraat 16. The sanctions also mean all accounts

belonging to Volozh have been frozen, and he is prohibited from making any profit from renting out 

property. However, this did not prevent him from trying to renovate the house and increase its value.

Also, Arkady Volozh, immediately after the imposition of sanctions against him, formally left the post of 

CEO of Yandex, in order to preserve its existing assets from the introduction of new sanctions. Arkady

Volange is known for his support of Vladimir Putin, managing content on search networks in Russia and 

the Yandex browser in favour of justifying military aggression, and covering war crimes by hiding search

content and distorting it. The EU has imposed various sanctions on Russian citizens and their businesses

in response to the conflict in Ukraine. These sanctions include banking restrictions (transfers, opening

accounts, closing accounts, confiscation of funds) and restrictions on trade in certain goods. The EU has 

also banned travel and frozen assets of individuals and entities involved in the conflict. The purpose of 

these sanctions is to put pressure on the Russian government to end its aggressive actions in Ukraine.

Another important and frightening consequence of military aggression was the strengthening of internal

political influence on Russian citizens. Such influence, in particular, was introduced in the education of

children in kindergartens, schools and universities, aggression against other nations and the excess of

Russian identity over others. Everyone knows that it was for the illegal deportation of 175, 000 to 300, 000

children from the occupied territories of Ukraine to Russia since 2014 and their forced adoption into

Russian families — Vladimir Putin and Maria Lvova-Belova that the prosecutor of the International Criminal

Court UN was accused and a warrant was issued for the arrest of these two persons, Russian citizens, on

the grounds of violation of the «Geneva Convention of 1949 relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons

in Time of War» (prohibition of change of citizenship), Article 7 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the

Child (children's right to name and nationality), Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and

Punishment of Genocide of 1948 (forcible transfer of children from one ethnic group to another), Protocol

4 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms (no one may be expelled

individually or collectively from the territory of the State, of which he is a citizen).

Since 2022, the practice of involving children in the so-called «YOUNG ARMY OF RUSSIA» has been

widespread both throughout Russia and in the occupied territories of Ukraine and Crimea. Thus, the

Russian government and the citizens of Russia overwhelmingly support military aggression against other

people and pose a threat to other nations and states. Raising children with aggression towards other

nations and to protect its leader Vladimir Putin — the state of Russia has already descended to the level of

the Middle Ages, and in the legal sense — recognized as a terrorist country by the parliaments of 8 states

(including the Netherlands) and the European Parliament — as a country sponsor of terrorism.

The consequences of the responsibility of Russian citizens and their businesses in the EU can be severe.

They may face legal consequences, such as fines or imprisonment, and their assets may be frozen or

confiscated. They may also be banned from entering the EU or doing business with EU companies. These

consequences can have a significant impact on their personal and professional lives. In addition, if the UN

imposes sanctions on Russian citizens, their businesses may be affected worldwide.

The UN has also imposed sanctions on Russian citizens and entities involved in the conflict in Ukraine.

These sanctions include travel bans and asset freezes. The purpose of these sanctions is to put pressure

on the Russian government to end its aggressive actions in Ukraine. The UN plays an important role in the

international community's response to the conflict, as it provides a framework for coordinated action

against those responsible for the conflict.

Sources of International and EU Legislation:

1. United Nations Security Council Resolution 2202 (2015)

2. Council Regulation (EU) No 269/2014 of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of

actions undermining or threatening the

territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine 3. Council Decision 2014/145/CFSP of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of 

actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine

4. Council Regulation (EU) No 833/2014 of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of 

Russia's actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine

5. Council Decision 2014/512/CFSP of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia's

actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine


Denys Keshkentiy,

Ukrainian Attorney at law



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George George
Ничего нового автор не сказал.
Георгий Федоров
МСожно было бы  напечатать в переводе, не все такие полиглоты, как автор публикации.Или же- это прикол??
George George
Автор не — полиглот. Гугл-переводчик ему помог.

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